Early years[ edit ] The fault was first identified in Northern California by UC Berkeley geology professor Andrew Lawson in and named by him after the Laguna de San Andreasa small lake which lies in a linear valley formed by the fault just south of San Francisco.
Berkeley Hills Tunnel In June Bay Area Rapid Transit BART management announced that they have elected not to modify the Berkeley Hills Tunnel, which actually penetrates the Hayward Fault, arguing that it would be cheaper and less disruptive to current operations to rebore a misaligned portion after the fact than to protect riders either by extensive modifications of the tunnel or by replacing it with a higher bore against the small likelihood that a train or two would crash into or be cut in two by a major slippage of the fault.
Large liquid storage tanks are protected by berms that are designed to contain the contents should a tank fail under normal conditions. Right-lateral direction of motion of the transform fault is shown pink arrows. Due to the extensive use of point of sale scanners and registers in supermarkets this could also impact the ability of stores to sell essential items such as groceries and to preserve frozen food items, as well as terminating cable TV and most internet access.
Much work remains to be done in the region and progress is being hampered by budget constraints imposed by trickle down federal-state-regional deficits, design and construction delays due to state and local political bickering over design, and unexpectedly high steel and cement costs due to the extensive construction work being done in China.
That distance has to be accommodated eventually by sudden land movement, which is an earthquake. The creep is sufficient to displace roads, curbs, and sidewalks and so visibly reveal the surface trace in many locations.
It is now thought to be the "ticking time bomb" fault line and more dangerous than the San Andres. It is very likely that the Hayward fault will rupture and produce a significant earthquake within the next 30 years. The aforementioned CGS scenario noted that eight large 99 beds or more acute care hospitals in Alameda and Contra Costa counties are within a mile of the fault.
Today, more than 2. The ground consistently moves a few millimeters each year, pulling apart sidewalks, pipelines and other structures that sit astride the fault.
A shallow event has a high probability to cause damage, though a much deeper event could be felt over more widespread area, he explained. Bayside soil conditions[ edit ] Main articles: How large an earthquake can the fault produce.
The big problem What makes the Hayward so concerning is that it is not creeping quickly enough.
Dozens of buildings, including an eighteenth-century Spanish mission in Fremont, were destroyed, and a twenty-mile-long crack opened in the earth between Fremont and Oakland. Image with enhanced annotation added In popular culture[ edit ] The Tom Wolfe novel A Man in Full features a fictional major earthquake on the Hayward Fault as a deus ex machina method freeing a major character from prison and plot development point.
Around 23 per cent of all earthquakes in the US happen in California - and the state has reported more than 6, in the past year alone. Highway 24 State Highway 24connecting Oakland to Orinda, Lafayette, and Walnut Creek through the Caldecott Tunnelis composed of extensive earth fill at the location where the fault is crossed.
Thirty people perished in the quake, including five in San Francisco. List of earthquakes in California The San Andreas Fault has had some notable earthquakes in historic times: But what seems certain is that a repeat of the event would be catastrophic, resulting in heavy damage to thousands of structures and likely causing hundreds of deaths.
At the same time, benefits have decreased. Scientists have been studying the past earthquakes on the Hayward fault. Households that are less damaged will certainly make much faster recoveries. Newton set up the model runs under three scenarios with varying event magnitudes: Technically speaking, the Hayward is a right-lateral strike-slip fault.
Secondary hazards such as landslides and wildfires are possible. CGS also reviews geologic site reports of new and retrofitted schools and hospitals. The evidence also shows the rupture direction going from north to south in each of these time-correlated events.
An array of sensors will be installed to record earthquakes that happen near this area. In mid-Novemberan earthquake swarm struck the San Andreas fault after a 4.
Similar dangerous soil conditions and insufficiently resistant buildings are also on the southern, western and northern boundaries of San Francisco and San Pablo bays and would also be severely affected by a major earthquake on the Hayward fault.
Severe effects were seen in both Oakland and northern San Francisco from the Loma Prieta earthquakeeven though this event was not extremely large and was centered a significant distance away in the Santa Cruz Mountains.
The southern segment also known as the Mojave segment begins near Bombay Beach, California. Significant features were noted and marked.
Although many structures have undergone seismic retrofitting there are a large number of dangerous unreinforced masonry mostly brick structures and chimneys, which can be extremely hazardous to occupants in a large earthquake, and a large number of buildings which are either not bolted to their foundations or with soft stories that are insufficiently resistant to shear forces.
Watch video · Known as the Hayward Fault, it extends from San Pablo Bay in the north to Fremont in the south, passing through heavily populated areas including Berkeley, Oakland and Hayward. The Hayward fault where the quake shook lies beneath a highly populated area in the Bay—and the next "big one" could be a magnitude to 7 earthquake.
This fault zone runs from San Pablo Bay. The Hayward Fault Zone is a geologic fault zone capable of generating destructive thesanfranista.com fault is about 74 mi ( km) long, situated mainly along the western base of the hills on the east side of San Francisco thesanfranista.com runs through densely populated areas, including Richmond, El Cerrito, Berkeley, Oakland, San Leandro, Castro Valley, Hayward, Union City, Fremont, and San Jose.
Bay Area Earthquake Probability Map. Using newly collected data and evolving theories of earthquake occurrence, U.S. Geological Survey and other scientists now conclude that there is a 63% probability of at least one magnitude or greater quake, capable of causing widespread damage, striking somewhere in the San Francisco Bay region in the next 30 years.
As the potential hazards of the fault have become clearer in recent years, officials have begun to take action. Old city halls in Hayward and Fremont have been abandoned because they lie on the fault. Rated 4 out of 5 by Olkingkohl from Great product one fault I purchased the Hayward Xstream w/ 1 HP motor for my 24’ pool it has been a blessing.
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